Isoruku Yamamoto was 59 years old when he died in April of 1943. For the previous four years he had served as commander in chief of the combined fleet of Japan. In that capacity he had developed a plan to make a pre-emptive strike on the United States to draw down American naval power. He planned and led the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 in which 2,402 men were killed– the worst attack ever on American soil by a foreign force. Americans rallied to a common cause, rebuilt and fought back.